• BibTex

    author = {Gould, John and Salaun, Josiane},
    title = {Behavioral experiments on handmarkings},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the SIGCHI/GI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems and Graphics Interface},
    series = {GI + CHI 1987},
    year = {1987},
    issn = {0713-5425},
    isbn = {0-89791-213-6},
    location = {Toronto, Ontario, Canada},
    pages = {175--181},
    numpages = {7},
    doi = {10.1145/29933.275626},
    acmdoi = {10.1145/29933.275626},
    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    address = {New York, NY, USA},


Handmarkings, e.g., handwritten proofeditors' marks, can be used as direct editing commands to an interactive computer system. Three exploratory experiments studied the potential value of handmarkings for editing text and pictures. Results showed that circles are the most frequently used scoping mark and arrows are the most frequently used operator and target indicators. Experimental comparisons showed that handmarkings have the potential to be faster than keyboards and mice for editing tasks. But their ultimate value will depend upon the style and details of their user interface implementation.