Proceedings: GI 2011

Structure-preserving stippling by priority-based error diffusion

Hua Li, David Mould

Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2011: St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, 25 - 27 May 2011, 127-134

  • BibTex

    author = {Li, Hua and Mould, David},
    title = {Structure-preserving stippling by priority-based error diffusion},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2011},
    series = {GI 2011},
    year = {2011},
    issn = {0713-5424},
    isbn = {978-1-4503-0693-5},
    location = {St. John{\textquoteright}s, Newfoundland, Canada},
    pages = {127--134},
    numpages = {8},
    publisher = {Canadian Human-Computer Communications Society},
    address = {Toronto, Ontario, Canada},


This paper presents a new fast, automatic method for structure-aware stippling. The core idea is to concentrate on structure preservation by using a priority-based scheme that treats extremal stipples first and preferentially assigns positive error to lighter stipples and negative error to darker stipples, emphasizing contrast. We also use a nonlinear spatial function to shrink or exaggerate errors and thus implicitly provide global adjustment of density. Our adjustment respects contrast and hence allows us to preserve structure even with very low stipple budgets. We also explore a variety of stylization effects, including screening and scratchboard, all within the unifying framework of stippling.