Proceedings: GI 2012

Dragimation: direct manipulation keyframe timing for performance-based animation

Benjamin Walther-Franks, Marc Herrlich, Thorsten Karrer, Moritz Wittenhagen, Roland Schröder-Kroll, Rainer Malaka, Jan Borchers

Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2012: Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 28 - 30 May 2012, 101-108

  • BibTex

    author = {Walther-Franks, Benjamin and Herrlich, Marc and Karrer, Thorsten and Wittenhagen, Moritz and Schr{\"o}der-Kroll, Roland and Malaka, Rainer and Borchers, Jan},
    title = {Dragimation: direct manipulation keyframe timing for performance-based animation},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2012},
    series = {GI 2012},
    year = {2012},
    issn = {0713-5424},
    isbn = {978-1-4503-1420-6},
    location = {Toronto, Ontario, Canada},
    pages = {101--108},
    numpages = {8},
    publisher = {Canadian Human-Computer Communications Society},
    address = {Toronto, Ontario, Canada},


Getting the timing and dynamics right is key to creating believable and interesting animations. However, using traditional keyframe animation techniques, timing is a tedious and abstract process. In this paper we present Dragimation, a novel technique for interactive performative timing of keyframe animations. It is inspired by direct manipulation techniques for video navigation that leverage the natural sense of timing all of us possess. We conducted a user study with 27 participants including professional animators as well as novices, in which we compared our approach to two other interactive timing techniques, timeline scrubbing and sketch-based timing. Dragimation is comparable regarding objective error measurements to the sketch-based approach and significantly better than scrubbing and is the overall preferred technique by our test users.